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Government of India has played a supporting role to house the poor through special programmes, targeted subsidy, and creation of an enabling environment for private sector initiatives. The facilitating approach aims at fostering public-private partnerships through incentives for the private sector, promotion of housing finance institutions, use of alternative and environment-friendly building materials and technologies, and support to NGOs, CBOs and cooperatives.

In this context, Ahmedabad - the fifth largest city in India with a population of 5,, and seventh largest urban agglomeration with a population of 6,, Census , offers an interesting perspective on affordable housing.

Affordable housing: a game changer

Further, housing finance institutions have come-up with new products and have identified alternative means for assessing incomes and affordability of people in the informal sector. The strategies, processes and tools that private developers have introduced in Ahmedabad are contributing to increasing the stock of affordable housing.

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It is likely to miss this deadline. It gave Rs 70, as cash incentives to rural families in need of pucca homes. PMAY has increased the amount to Rs 1.

Each house needs to be at least sq ft in size. Beneficiaries are selected through the housing deprivation parameters in the Socio-Economic and Caste Census of , which are further verified by gram sabhas.

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Block-level officers are expected to submit a photograph of each potential beneficiary in front of their current house, as well as a geo-tagged photograph of the land on which the proposed PMAY house is to be built. State governments are required to free up public land for landless beneficiaries. Once beneficiaries are verified, the government issues sanction orders for the construction.

The cash incentives for construction have to be disbursed to beneficiaries in either three or four instalments — the first installment at the time of sanction and the rest at different stages of construction. For the first financial year of , the Ministry of Rural Development, which is implementing the scheme, had asked for Rs 34, but the Centre allocated just Rs 16, crore.

This gap reduced over the years. Thirty-five percent of the houses were not complete even after two years of being sanctioned. Of the 69 lakh beneficiaries who have completed constructing their homes, only 31 lakh have received all four instalments of their cash incentives, as of February The rest are yet to be paid the full amount, which is a financial burden for households that may have struggled to get their homes constructed.

Formal housing finance outreach and the urban poor in India | Emerald Insight

PMAY Rural may be effective for landowners without pucca houses, but most landless beneficiaries have been at a major disadvantage. State governments have not been able to free up adequate public land for the landless.

The disbursement of instalment payments has been delayed, which has forced some beneficiaries to complete construction on their own, without assistance. In Arunachal Pradesh , 1, houses have been sanctioned, out of which 67 have been built.

The Modi Years: How close is India to affordable housing for all?

However, the government has not disbursed even one instalment of the cash incentives. Despite this, on its official website, PMAY Rural takes credit for the completion of those 67 houses. However, even though implementation has been slow, more houses were constructed annually under PMAY Rural for the first two years of the scheme, compared to the number of houses constructed annually under the Indira Awas Yojana. It offers cash subsidies of Rs 1.

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Beneficiary-led housing construction: Those who want to construct their own homes on private land in urban areas can apply for subsidies. Affordable housing by the government: In housing projects built on government land, eligible first-time home buyers can avail of a subsidy of Rs 2. To give a boost to this sub-scheme, the government introduced a policy of public-private partnerships in September , encouraging private sector participation.

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