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Some energy can be supplied by renewable energy in the short term while the opportunities will expand over some period of time. The Twin pillars if sustainable energy Geographic synergies-efficiency and renewable compliment each other in terms of where resources are available regionally. Some regions are richer in renewable than others while efficiency is available across the country.

Countries without the renewable get them from the countries with them and this creates a political consensus around the clean energy policy. The book by Diesendorf puts forward strategies which can aid in implementing the most promising clean "energy" in the government, community and business organizations. This book suggests that Australia is going to have clean energy when it uses efficient energy use methods, renewable sources of energy sun, wind, and biomass and natural gas according to Mark, new policies must be developed and implemented by the government, using ecologically sustainable energy technologies that are energy efficient and renewable.

The use of natural gas will reduce greenhouse emissions within a decade. Diesendorf The external effects of the transport system are divided into the health and environmental effects. They include:. The transport system has to be cleaner, reduce its material requirements, produce sufficiently and should not have many socially adverse effects. The transport system should function in such a way that it will not affect other sectors of the society. It should produce minimal amounts of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as they have a negative impact on the local and global environment.

It should have an improved security on energy supply through reducing importation of fossil fuels. People will always seek the energy source that costs the least. The reason why many people use petroleum-derived fuels is because of how simply they can be stored and used efficiently in the internal combustion engine of the vehicle. Other fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane and methanol can be used as fuel but the only disadvantage is that they require a more complicated storage system.


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These alternative fuels can not be used in large scale because of the large capital investments required and they have a low efficiency than gasoline because of the high density and will therefore require a greater volume of on-board storage. Perrels Fuels in non-crude oil resources are drawing attention and people are conspiring to use them because of the increasing petroleum costs, oil reserves and to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants the atmosphere.

The once that are being considered are:. The diffusion of non fossil fuels in the transportation sector has serious limitations. As a result, the price of oil will certainly continue to increase as more expensive fuel-recovery technologies will have to be utilized with soaring demand for gasoline. But high oil prices are inflationary leading to recession in economic activity and the search for alternative source of energy.

Already, the peaking of conventional oil production is leading to the implementation of coal derived oil projects. Coal liquefaction technology allows the transformation of coal into refined oil after a series of processes in an environment of high temperature and high pressure. While the cost-effectiveness of this technique as yet to be demonstrated, coal liquefaction is an important measure in the implementation of transportation fuel strategies in coal-rich countries, such as China and South Africa.

Hebden The cost that is incurred in the alternative energy sources is higher in the transportation sector than in other economic activities. Green building also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to a structure of using process that is environmental friendly. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:.

Green building is a sustainable development which addresses the energy crisis and tends to eradicate the pollution of the environment. We have a number of motives to green building which includes environmental, economic, and social benefits.

However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of an existing structure. This approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy amongst the practices used. Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of new buildings on the environment and human health. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well.

Gevorcian Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy use.

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To increase the efficiency of the energy is often implemented in low-energy homes. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. The Energy board regulates the production of energy and provides security to the consumers. The power consumption board also distributes the power generated from the power plant in a centralized place. The energy is transmitted to the customers through the power lines. Energy can be produced efficiently from local generating plant, renewable sources, wind, solar and geothermal. Energy is distributed in power grid to building resiliency to natural disasters such as earthquakes.

Based on the above research, it is very important for buildings and transport systems to conserve energy because it is not only save on cost it also saves energy. Due to the negative affects that impact the environment when energy is not conserved, it is very important that the greenhouse gases are prevented from being released to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide if released to the atmosphere leads to the destruction of the ozone layer that leads to global warming.

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Global warming leads to increased amount of heat and if the ozone layer is completely destroyed the world will become a desert entirely. The use of the above discussed alternative sources of energy should be used to prevent the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The impact of sustainable transport can be defined across social, economic, and environmental dimensions as follows: the economic impact: development of the human capital, its engagement in the creation of wealth by employing people to work in the transportation industry locally, nationally and globally, and the way in which transportation participates in the management of the effects of globalization.

Social impact: improved standards of living due to improved and accessible transport services, improved labour standards and working conditions and the increase in inter-regional trade using low cost transport services hence improving the quality of lives especially those people in the coastal regions. Environmental impact : transport operations affect the environment negatively through environmental degradation due to the carbon emissions released by vehicles and trains, energy consumption and waste production, e.

The Twin pillars if sustainable energy Geographic synergies-efficiency and renewable compliment each other in terms of where resources are available regionally. Diesendorf 4. They include: Climate change-this is caused by the release of carbon dioxide to the environment. Acid precipitation-this happens when the pollutant emissions combine with water to form acidic precipitation. Pollutant emissions and road dust on travelers cause respiratory diseases to the travelers.

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Stress disease-caused by noise and congested traffic. Biodiversity-this is the migration of exotic species. This is caused by climate change which leads to lack of food for the animals and also high temperature due to global warming makes animals migrate or extinction of plants species. The soil quality becomes very poor due to chemical contamination by the acid precipitation and soil erosion caused by sudden rains brought about by climate change. The water quality is also affected due to chemical contamination and loss of natural filters caused by the acid precipitation.

Land take-land is taken when roads are being constructed due to the right of way. Parking structures for parking vehicles also consume a lot of land which could be used for other activities such as agriculture. Promoting obesity-due to car dependency, many people have become lazy and do not exercise leading to obesity in the society which is a lifestyle condition.

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Neighborhood severance-this involves the noise caused by the transport vessels and the traffic volume hinders movement of pedestrians. A transition that is geared towards a sustainable society has the following implications; The transport system has to be cleaner, reduce its material requirements, produce sufficiently and should not have many socially adverse effects. The transport system should function in such a way that it will not affect other sectors of the society It should produce minimal amounts of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as they have a negative impact on the local and global environment.

The once that are being considered are: Biogas -include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol. They can be produced from the fermentation of wood waste and food crops.


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The only disadvantage with biogas is that it requires very large harvesting areas and this leads to competition with other land uses. Biomass, due to its low productivity does not meet the needs of the transportation sector.